Thursday, June 25, 2020

Salam Witch Trails - Free Essay Example

How and when did the Salam witchcraft epidemic begin? Began when a group of young girls started to act strange and accused others of using witch craft on them. It begain during the 1680’s and 1690’s. Have you ever been unfairly accused of something? How might the social atmosphere of 17th century America have helped bring about the witchcraft epidemic? The social atmostphere of the 17th century in America was that most people that were accusced where middleaged women that either held a low social position or rich young women who inherited a lot of land. It was usually the class tension of between the rich and the poor. What was the leading 18th century theory about why there was mass hysteria in salam? How was it disproved? That new Englanders belived ithe power of satan and the belief of witchcraft was the main answer of what might be happing to the youn girls. It showed the puritans religious convictions . it was disproved when the slam possessed of 1976 was published stating that the class tension between the rich and the poor caused the accusations. What are the connections between ergot and salam witch hunting. The girls who were bewitched suffered hallucinations, convulsions,etc was because they were poisoned by a crop of fungus infected rye just like the french’s case of the ergot poisoning with the same symptoms. Have yOu ever been persuaded to belive something? what does the experiment tell you about the power of suggestion Do you think the united states legal system is always fair? Do you think something like the salam witch trials could occur in the united states today?

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Financial Analysis of Apple, Inc. - 2114 Words

Company Background Apple, Inc. (formerly known as Apple Computer, Inc.) was incorporated in the State of California in 1977. Apple currently designs, manufactures, and markets a variety of computer and personal electronic products, including Macintosh computers, and the iPod digital music player. AppleÕs key markets are consumers, creative professionals, educational institutions, and business users. For nearly twenty years, Apple computers have been the industry standard for creative industries such as publishing, advertising, digital music and video editing, and graphic design. Apple computer and peripheral products include Macbook and Macbook Pro laptops, iMac and Mac Pro desktops, as well a line of flat-panel displays and the†¦show more content†¦By examining the long-term debt to equity ratio, as well as the remaining debt ratios, we can assume that Apple carries a relatively small amount of debt, as do most firms in the industry. This means that Apple has a proportionately large equity base, and a high amount of unused borrowing capacity. Profitability Ratios Apple has a gross profit margin ratio of 31.53, which is higher than the industry average of 27.63. This indicates that Apple is either more efficient at reducing production costs than the average firm in the industry, or has more efficient pricing policies and/or sale techniques than the average firm in the industry. The fact that Apple owns 165 retail stores may help increases this ratio by allowing more sales that arenÕt discounted to wholesalers or distributors. This ratio is well below the SP 500 average for both Apple and the entire industry. AppleÕs net profit margin is 12.92, compared to the industry average of 8.46. AppleÕs computer products are priced higher than most in the industry, and a combination of these higher prices and efficient cost controls could be a factor. Management Effectiveness AppleÕs inventory turnover ratio is 71.75, while the industry average is 58.61. AppleÕs high inventory turn can be attributed to a period of high growth and increasing sales during FY2006, which will be discussed in the next section. The higher than averageShow MoreRelatedFinancial Analysis of Apple Inc.795 Words   |  4 PagesFinancial Analysis (Submitted by) Abstract The following paper aims at discussing the financial position of the American multinational corporation, Apple inc., which designs and markets consumer electronics, computers and personal computers mobile communication devices, and portable digital music and video players, as well as sells various related software, services, peripherals, and networking solutions. Apple Inc. together with subsidiaries sells its products worldwide through its onlineRead MoreMicrosoft And Apple Inc. Financial Analysis Essay1012 Words   |  5 Pages Financial Ratios Name of student Name of institution â€Æ' Microsoft and Apple Inc. Financial Analysis The financial analysis expressed in this paper shows a comparison of two large firms in the communication and technology industry. Microsoft and Apple Inc. both deal in telecommunication gadgets and accessories within the United States and around the world. The paper focuses on the financial comparison of the two companies for two fiscal years of the year 2014 and 2015. A close analysisRead MoreFinancial Analysis And Assessment Of Apple Inc. Essay937 Words   |  4 PagesThis paper intends to provide a financial analysis and assessment of Apple Inc. from the years of 2005 to 2009. The evaluation is based on the numbers calculated from the data on Apple Inc.’s Financial Performance Worksheets. This paper covers three areas. The first part of the paper contains a brief history of Apple and the position of the organization in the market of computers. The second part is a calculation of Apple s performance and the reasons for their success. Finally, a conclusionRead MoreFina ncial Analysis Of Apple, Inc. Essay1861 Words   |  8 PagesCompany Background Apple, Inc. (formerly known as Apple Computer, Inc.) was incorporated in the State of California in 1977. Apple currently designs, manufactures, and markets a variety of computer and personal electronic products, including Macintosh computers, and the iPod digital music player. AppleÕs key markets are consumers, creative professionals, educational institutions, and business users. For nearly twenty years, Apple computers have been the industry standard for creative industriesRead MoreEssay about Apple Inc. Financial Analysis2812 Words   |  12 PagesAPPLE Inc. (AAPL) Accounting and Financial Profile [pic] Name Sachitanand Karnakote Choong Chee Lai Lei Qiu Alcides Santopietro Denisa Voicu September 2008 Contents Introduction 2 The company and its activities 2 Industry Competition 2 Recommendation 3 Accounting choices and Quality of Earnings 4 Ratios analysis 6 Liquidity: 6 Solvency: 7 Profitability: 8 Market: 8 Relevant Disclosures 9 Risks 9 Analysis of Apple Inc. corporate strategy 10 Introduction Read MoreEssay on Financial Analysis of Apple, Inc.1980 Words   |  8 PagesWhen looking at the financial performance of a company, it is important to examine the financial ratios. There are several different classifications of financial ratios. Profitability ratios show the profitability of the company. Liquidity ratios deal with the current assets and current liabilities of the company, and they determine how the company is performing with their liquid finances. Leverage ratios deal with the company’s debt, and how they affect performance. Activity ratios deal with a company’sRead MoreA Financial Ratio Quarterly Trend Analysis of Apple, Inc.3198 Words   |  13 PagesA Financial Ratio Quarterly Trend Analysis of Apple, Inc. Stock Symbol: AAPL Listed on NASDAQ Prepared for: Department of Finance and Real Estate Florida International University In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course: By: Introduction This report provides a financial quarterly trend analysis for Apple Inc. The U.S. based company (formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computerRead MoreApple Inc vs. Philips: Financial Analysis996 Words   |  4 Pagesaccording to Weygandt, Kimmel and Kieso (2009), dictates that companies recognize revenue in the accounting period in which it is earned. The reporting of revenue generally affects not only the results of the operations of a given entity but also its financial position. In that regard, the relevance of understanding both the concepts as well as practices of revenue recognition cannot be overstated. In the words of Nikolai, Bazley and Jones (2009), revenues should be recognized when (1) realization hasRead MoreApple Inc: Analysis of Financial Statement Essay examples2094 Words   |  9 PagesAn Analysis of the Financial Statements of Apple Intermediate Accounting III INTRODUCTION I chose Apple for my course project mainly based on the fact that they release all their records to the public and they have excellent accounting practices. Their paper work is easy to read and follow and based on their records they have an endless amount of revenue in the billions. As we have discussed about Apple in class I was very intrigued how they looked in the books on a specific level of detailRead More Apple Inc. Financial Analysis Case Study Essay examples3623 Words   |  15 Pages Apple Inc.’s Financial Analysis case study will cover the nine-step assessment process to evaluate the company’s future financial health. The nine-step evaluation process will entail the following: 1) Fundamental analysis covers objectives, plan of action, market, competing technology, and governing and operational traits, 2) Fundamental analysis-revenue direction, 3) Investments to support the firm’s entities action plan, 4) Forthcoming profit and competitive accomplishment, 5) Forthcoming

Monday, May 18, 2020

Adderall And Its Effects On Children With Narcolepsy And...

Pierre Philippe Falcone Coach Matt Health 6 May 2015 ~Adderall~ Adderall is a generally well-tolerated medicine and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD. The most common side effects are cardiovascular, such as irregular heartbeat (usually as a fast heartbeat), and psychological, such as euphoria or anxiety. Introduction Adderall is a medicine used to treat people with Narcolepsy and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It contains a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine chemicals. These chemicals affect the brain and nerves because they are central nervous system stimulants, and contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. Most people use this drug for good use, but there are also some that abuse and corrupt who they are because of this drug. A woman by the username of â€Å"missluvie† tells about her story with Adderall. She had very bad depression and no motivation to do anything. Her mother told her to take Adderall, and her life was changed. She became livelier, active, and a better mother. But she soon started to realize that the drug began to take control of her life, in which she couldn’t live without it. She was addicted (missluvlie). Adderall did help her life, but it soon made it harder to live with. When she wouldn’t take adderall, she woul d get worse depression than before, and life would feel harder. She says she would want to sleep all day. Yes, Adderall has some benefits, but the final outcome was bad. Drugs will give you someShow MoreRelatedAdderall And Its Effects On Children With Narcolepsy And Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1091 Words   |  5 PagesPierre Philippe Falcone Coach Matt Health 4 May 2015 ~Adderall~ Adderall is a generally well-tolerated medicine and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD. The most common side effects are cardiovascular, such as irregular heartbeat (usually as a fast heartbeat), and psychological, such as euphoria or anxiety. Introduction Adderall is a medicine used to treat people with Narcolepsy and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It contains a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamineRead MoreAdderall Is A Familiar Name That Has Been Around For Years.1476 Words   |  6 PagesAdderall is a familiar name that has been around for years. It is typically used for medical purposes for people with disorders such as ADHD and narcolepsy. It is a necessary drug for those who need it. However, in the last decade, it has become more than just a drug to calm those who are hyper or keep someone with a sleeping disorder up. It is being used by college students to keep them awake whether it is in class, for a test, to study late at night, and regular citizens in the country are abusingRead MoreAdderall : A Form Of Amphetamine Essay1009 Words   |  5 Pagescountries, which include the United States and Canada, to mainly treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Narcolepsy and Depression. Add erall’s are accessible in two different forms: instant release and extended release, Adderall IR and Adderall XR, respectively. The difference between the two is how the actual pill is made, the extended release one is made of plastic which extends the process in which the Adderall treats the body. On the other hand, the instant release one treats theRead MoreAbusing Drug Prescription Is the Wrong Way to Sucess1184 Words   |  5 Pageseducation, high GPAs, and outstanding business performance in the professional environment. In order to excel, there is so much pressure and expectation that college students today are more vulnerable to experiment and get hooked on smart drugs like Adderall, Ritalin, and Modafilin. College students are not taking these drugs to get high but to increase their concentration, energy, and time for studying. Smart drugs must not be used in college environments or in a place of business if the doctor doesRead MoreADHD Diagnosis and Treatment Essay1242 Words   |  5 Pagesskin disorders and six percent for allergy medicines. There was also a 369% increase in spending on ADHD drugs for kids under the age of five. A lot of children have been diagnosed with ADHD, and many of their parents have opted to give them behavioral drugs. Some parents give the drugs because they are not aware of the long term effects or the psychological dependency, and lastly because they are not aware of the alternatives. As parents we have to be more cognizant of what these disorders areRead MorePrescription Drug Abuse And The Treatment Of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )2134 Words   |  9 Pages Prescription medications commonly abused include opioids often prescribed to treat pain, central nervous system depressants used to treat anxiety, and stimulants used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) as well as some sleeping disorders. OxyContin, a widely abused prescription opioid was synthesized from thebaine, an organic chemical found in opium. Oxycodone was synthesized in 1916 in Frankfurt, Germany in Bayer PharmaceuticalRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay1373 Words   |  6 Pagesdrug methylphenidate, is a a medication used to treat ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and narcolepsy, a certain sleep disorder. It operates by changing the amounts of the natural substances in the brain stem arousal system and cortex and belongs to a class of drugs known as stimulants. Ritalin, classified by the Drug Enforcement Administration as a Schedule II narcotic, helps to increase the ability of a person to pay attention, to remain to focus on a specific activity, manage behavioralRead MoreRichard Fee Was A Potential Medical Student1496 Words   |  6 Pagesdoctor who believed he had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The doctor immediately prescribed him Vyvanse for his A DHD. In 2008 after he graduated with a degree in biology, he began to study hard for the medical school entry exams. (Schwarz 1) This caused him to make an appointment to the nearby Triad Psychiatric and Counseling Center. The doctor concluded from an 18-question-survey that he had an inattentive-type of ADHD. Richard Fee never had any signs of ADHD before college, as a kid orRead MoreWhat Now Pills Or Video Games?1816 Words   |  8 Pageshave ADHD, only in United States; it is a huge number in comparison to other serious illnesses and diseases. For example, prostate and breast cancers are two most common cancers in the world right now and together there are a little bit over 6 million people who have it . National Institute of Mental Health(NIMN) gives a definition for the disorder:†Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders... difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficultyRead MoreThe Anxiety Of The Teen Hack er3411 Words   |  14 PagesYello, Oreos, and Adderall, and I don’t sleep ‘till I’m done.† Depressives have Prozac, worrywarts have Valium, gym rats have steroids, and overachievers have Adderall. While this scene from HBO’s Silicon Valley may be fictional, the teen hacker’s penchant for Adderall in pressure situations illustrates an increasingly common reality among young Americans. Made of mixed amphetamine salts, Adderall is one of many stimulants used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) along with Ritalin Adderall And Its Effects On Children With Narcolepsy And... Pierre Philippe Falcone Coach Matt Health 4 May 2015 ~Adderall~ Adderall is a generally well-tolerated medicine and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD. The most common side effects are cardiovascular, such as irregular heartbeat (usually as a fast heartbeat), and psychological, such as euphoria or anxiety. Introduction Adderall is a medicine used to treat people with Narcolepsy and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It contains a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine chemicals. These chemicals affect the brain and nerves because they are central nervous system stimulants, and contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. Most people use this drug for good use, but there are also some that abuse and†¦show more content†¦Its best to avoid adderall and drugs completely, unless it is medically given. History Adderall originally came from the weight loss drug Obetrol in the 1960’s. A business known as Rexar distributed the product until 1973. The drug was made for people with obesity; the ingredients suppress your appetite, making you not hungry. But being â€Å"over the counter†, the drug became abused and severe side effects like addiction, starvation, psychosis, cardiac arrest, and even death came with the small pill. So, it was taken away after the FDA (The Food and Drug Administration) withdrew application for a failed blind study test. As years went by, a company by the name of Richwood Pharmaceuticals purchased Obetrol and renamed it Adderall and sold it for ADHD. Of course they could only sell the drug with approval from FDA, which they did in 1996 after some tests were performed. The drug soon became popular, mostly in colleges. Richwood then released different variations of the drug: XR (extended release, used more for narcolepsy) and IR (immediate release). Now it is only given as a prescription from doctors and professionals (and drug dealers). You can still buy over the counter alternatives today, but research says that â€Å"it’s not quite the same†. Effects on the body The purpose of the drug is to help treat people with ADHD and Narcolepsy. But of many people who don’t have that, some take it because it increases their ability to focus and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s - 974 Words

After World War II, African Americans demanded changes in American society. African Americans fought in World War II for their country, but they returned home to discrimination and inequality. In the late 1940s and 50s American society started to overturn some official discrimination against African Americans. In 1947, Jackie Robinson integrated major league baseball (891) and in 1948, Harry Truman desegregated the armed forces. In 1954, the Plessey decision of 1896, which created two societies, one for whites and one for blacks, was overturned in the case of Brown v. Board of Education, creating integrated schools (894). Although the Supreme Court ruled that official school segregation was unconstitutional, blacks still faced many†¦show more content†¦This violence began a new era of civil rights protests. In contrast to legal segregation in South, in the North blacks and whites were in separate communities because of poverty. The poverty of blacks in the North led t o an angry and more militant style of protest. Northern blacks lived in urban ghettos and with high unemployment, poor housing and lack of services. The lives of the African Americans did not improve much because of legal integration. Cities exploded in riots due to the harsh conditions affecting their lives. Black Power came alive in the late 1960s (925). Black Power was a more militant alternative of fighting racism that persisted despite the efforts of black activists during the early 1960s. The Black Panthers, who originated in Oakland, California, promoted Black Power and black nationalism (925). Many people felt threatened by the Black Panthers and their militant approach even though they were more of a self-defense group. Black people had been victims of police brutality and the Black Panthers tried to fight for their protection and their rights (Doc F). But poverty was so bad in black neighborhoods that blacks still felt anger although legal segregation was eliminat ed. Malcolm X, like the Black Panthers also aggressively demanded equality. HeShow MoreRelatedThe Civil Rights Movement Of The 1960 S1077 Words   |  5 Pagesmany social changes that have occurred. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s was one of the most significant and important for the equality of all people. Since the abolition of slavery in 1863, there had been a continuous conflict between the races of people who live in the United States. African Americans have a history of struggles because of racism and prejudices. Ever since the end of the Civil War, they struggled to benefit from their full rights that the Constitution promised. Jim Crow wasRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement During The 1960 S1224 Words   |  5 Pagesand negative effects on the people of the US.   During the 1960’s there were a lot of changes and one of these major changes was know as The Civil Rights Movement.   The civil rights movement was a movement created by African Americ ans to achieve rights equal to white people and have equal opportunity in housing, employment, education, the right to vote, and to not be segregated.   This movement had many important leaders that helped get rights for African Americans.   The book â€Å"Tambourines To Glory† isRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement During The 1960 S1368 Words   |  6 PagesThe American South in the 1960 s and Ancient Thebes both had a rigid social and legal system that did not effectively and legitimately represent the majority of its citizens. In both eras, an antihero rose up to defy the establish system. Dr. King, in the 1960 s, protested unjust laws and was jailed and viewed as an antagonist. Similarly, in Ancient Thebes, Antigone is sentenced to death for doing what she believes is right, regardless of the law. If Dr. King failed, he stood to lose, in additionRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement in the 1960’s Essay1796 Words   |  8 Pages The 1960’s were one of the most significant decades in the twentieth century. The sixties were filled with new music, clothes, and an overall change in the way people acted, but most importantly it was a decade filled with civil rights movements. On February 1, 1960, four black freshmen from North Carolina Agriculture and Technical College in Greensboro went to a Woolworth’s lunch counter and sat down politely and asked for service. The waitress refused to serve them and the students remainedRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement in the 1960’s Essay1269 Words   |  6 Pageshave been struggling for equality for many decades. It only seems that during the 1960?s is when there were actual significant advances made. This was about the same time that civil rights came into the political scene. Throughout the South, Blacks were still in the majority, but had no political power what so ever. The Civil Rights Movement gave African Americans a voice and a chance to m ake a difference. The 1960s helped open up hope and expectations for Black Americans. One of the most prominentRead MoreEssay on The Civil Rights Movement in the 1960’s447 Words   |  2 PagesFighting for Civil Rights during the 60s The struggle began with non-violent protests. Backed by students, the civil rights movement trudged onward. African Americans staged mass protests to show their support. Despite all this, many racial barriers still remained in the South. Black objectives were redefined in the 60s when militant black consciousness developed. The great society emerged providing hope for all. Liberal optimism swept the nation and liberalism influenced internationallyRead More Students and the Civil Rights Movement During the 1960s Essay1036 Words   |  5 Pages The 1960s was a decade of tremendous social and political upheaval. In the United States, many movements occurred by groups of people seeking to make positive changes in society. During this decade, the Civil Rights movement continued to gain momentum. The black community was continually persecuted and discriminated against by prejudice white individuals and figures of authority. Blacks everywhere struggled to end discrimination. They demanded the right to vote, to receiveRead MoreRacial Segregation During The 1960 s Civil Rights Movement Essay2048 Words   |  9 PagesA primary technique used to overcome racial segregation during the 1960’s Civil Rights Movement in the United States was direct action. One of the most influential leaders of the Civil Rights Movement was Martin Luther King Junior who is known for his use of nonviolent direct action, which often entailed the violation of laws as an act of civil disobedience. On April 16, 1963, King composed his â€Å"Letter from Birmingham Jail,† where he accepted the consequences for his disobedience against the BirminghamRead MoreSocial Changes During The 1960 S1254 Words   |  6 Pa gesThe 1960’s was a decade filled with change in the existing conditions of the social, political, and economic spectrums. These social changes involved challenges to the conservative status quo of the time. Parts that contributed to this social revolution were new developments in the Feminist Movement, the Civil Rights Movement, and a rebellious counterculture. The political changes of this time period were embodied by the continuation and extension of the Vietnam War, new laws pertaining to civil rightsRead MoreReasons For The Civil Rights Movement1436 Words   |  6 PagesWhen did the Civil Rights Movement begin in earnest in Buffalo? The Civil Rights Movement In Buffalo was weak and many people were quiet and conservative. It was less a Movement than a group of scattered individuals, primarily black and Jewish. This Civil Rights Movement happened in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. Some people believed that this movement began in Western New York. African Americans faced many social problems during this time period, which demonstrated the significance of organizing

The Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne - 1172 Words

For-est Libertas John Muir, pioneer of American conservationism, declared that â€Å"The clearest way into the universe is through a forest wilderness† (Muir 313). For many modern Americans, the forest is a place of freedom, peace, and introspection. However, until the last century, the wilderness was often regarded with fear and resentment. Written long before John Muir and the conservation movement, The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne was well ahead of its time for its depiction of wilderness. In The Scarlet Letter, Arthur Dimmesdale leaves the beaten path and seeks refuge in the forest. There, he gains the strength and willpower to throw off seven years of hopelessness and take his fate into his own hands. Although the Puritans view the forest as a place of wild paganism, the forest symbolizes moral agency because it opens opportunity, transforms the characters into active agents, and asserts justice. First, the forest symbolizes moral agency because it opens opportun ity to the characters. Agency requires two conditions: first, the freedom to choose, and second, choices to make. The forest plays an essential role in the plot by giving Hester and Dimmesdale the opportunity to choose a new life. Hawthorne explains that Hester chooses to meet Dimmesdale in the forest, â€Å"Partly that her conscious heart imputed suspicion where none could have been felt, and partly that both the minister and she needed the whole wide world to breathe in, while they talked together,—for allShow MoreRelatedThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1242 Words   |  5 PagesLYS PAUL Modern Literature Ms. Gordon The Scarlet Letter The scarlet letter is book written by Nathaniel Hawthorne who is known as one the most studied writers because of his use of allegory and symbolism. He was born on July 4, 1804 in the family of Nathaniel, his father, and Elizabeth Clark Hathorne his mother. Nathaniel added â€Å"W† to his name to distance himself from the side of the family. His father Nathaniel, was a sea captain, and died in 1808 with a yellow fever while at sea. That was aRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne960 Words   |  4 Pages3H 13 August 2014 The novel, The Scarlet Letter, was written by the author Nathaniel Hawthorne and was published in 1850 (1). It is a story about the Puritan settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, set around 1650 (2). The story is written in the third person with the narrator being the author. The common thread that runs through this novel is Hawthorne’s apparent understanding of the beliefs and culture of the Puritans in America at that time. But Hawthorne is writing about events in a societyRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne919 Words   |  4 Pagessymbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†. Symbolism is when an object is used in place of a different object. Nathaniel Hawthorne is one of the most symbolic writers in all of American history. In â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†, the letter â€Å"A† is used to symbolize a variety of different concepts. The three major symbolistic ideas that the letter â€Å"A† represents in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"The Scarlet Letter† are; shame, guilt, and ability. In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†, the firstRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1397 Words   |  6 PagesFebruary 2016 The Scarlet Letter was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1850 which is based on the time frame of the Puritans, a religious group who arrived in Massachusetts in the 1630’s. The Puritans were in a religious period that was known for the strict social norms in which lead to the intolerance of different lifestyles. Nathaniel Hawthorne uses the puritan’s strict lifestyles to relate to the universal issues among us. The time frame of the puritans resulted in Hawthorne eventually thinkingRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne999 Words   |  4 Pages Nathaniel Hawthorne is the author of the prodigious book entitled The Scarlet Letter. In The Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne commits adultery with Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale. Her husband, Roger Chillingworth, soon finds out about the incident after it becomes clear that she is pregnant. The whole town finds out and Hester is tried and punished. Meanwhile, Roger Chillingworth goes out then on a mission to get revenge by becoming a doctor and misprescribing Dimmesdale. He does this to torture DimmesdaleRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne1037 Words   |  5 Pagesthat human nature knows right from wrong, but is naturally evil and that no man is entirely â€Å"good†. Nathaniel Hawthorne, author of the classic novel The Scarlet Letter, believes that every man is innately good and Hawthorne shows that everyone has a natural good side by Hester’s complex character, Chillingworth’s actions and Dimmesdale’s selfless personality. At the beginning of the Scarlet Letter Hester Prynne is labeled as the â€Å"bad guy†. The townspeople demand the other adulterer’s name, butRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1517 Words   |  7 PagesNathaniel Hawthorne composes Pearl as a powerful character even though she is not the main one. Her actions not only represent what she is as a person, but what other characters are and what their actions are. Hawthorne makes Pearl the character that helps readers understand what the other characters are. She fits perfectly into every scene she is mentioned in because of the way her identity and personality is. Pearl grows throughout the book, which in the end, help the readers better understandRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne1488 Words   |  6 Pages In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel The Scarlet Letter, the main character, Hester Prynne, is a true contemporary of the modern era, being cast into 17th century Puritan Boston, Massachusetts. The Scarlet Letter is a revolutionary novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne examining the ugliness, complexity, and strength of the human spirit and character that shares new ideas about independence and the struggles women faced in 17th century America. Throughout the novel, Hester’s refusal to remove the scarlet letterRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1319 Words   |  6 PagesPrynne and Arthur Dimmesdale are subject to this very notion in Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter. Hester simply accepted that what she had done was wrong, whereas Dimmesdale, being a man of high regard, did not want to accept the reality of what he did. Similar to Hester and Dimmesdale, Roger Chillingworth allows his emotions to influence his life; however, his influence came as the result of hi s anger. Throughout the book, Hawthorne documents how Dimmesdale and Hester s different ways of dealingRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne1714 Words   |  7 PagesSome two hundred years following the course of events in the infamous and rigid Puritan Massachusetts Colony in the 1600s, Nathaniel Hawthorne, descendant of a Puritan magistrate, in the 19th century, published The Scarlet Letter. Wherein such work, Hawthorne offered a social critique against 17th Massachusetts through the use of complex and dynamic characters and literary Romanticism to shed light on said society’s inherent contradiction to natural order and natural law. In his conclusive statements

Development of the Periodic Table Free Essays

It’s a rarity that we should come across a laboratory, classroom, chemistry textbook or lecture theatre that doesn’t contain a periodic table of the elements. It required the immense research and determination of the scientist Dmitri Mendeleev to show us that all elements followed a natural form and provided us with the first decent periodic table. There are 111 elements recognised today by IUPAC and they are arranged in the periodic table in horizontal groups and vertical periods. We will write a custom essay sample on Development of the Periodic Table or any similar topic only for you Order Now The eight groups consist of the alkali metals, the alkaline earth metals, the transition elements, metalloids, non-metals, the halogens and the nobel gases. The development of the periodic table first began with Antoine Lavoisier. His job as a privatised tax-collector helped finance his scientific research. He was the first scientist to classified the elements into four groups. These groups consisted of gases, metals, non-metals and metal oxides. In 1789, he proposed the Law of Conservation of Mass. This law stated that the mass of the products of a chemical reaction is equal to the reactants. This led to the â€Å"chemical revolution† and sparked interest amongst other scientists which, in turn, led to the periodic table that we know of today. In 1817 Johann Dobereiner saw became aware that the atomic weight of strontium was exactly half of the sum of the atomic weights of calcium and barium, which were elements that possessed similar properties. It took Dobereiner another twelve years to propose the Law of the Triads, after extensive research into finding the triads of the halogen group and the alkali metal group. In 1829 he proposed that nature contained triads of elements, with the middle element showing properties that were an average of the other two elements when ordered by atomic weight. Slowly, Dobereiners views began to be taken up by other chemists who tried to complete the unfinished triads, as further knowledge of the elements was gained. Dobereiner’s triads played an important role in Gmelin’s Hand Book of Chemistry, but besides their importance in this publication not much notice was taken of the triads until much later on. The first scientist to arrange the elements in a periodic system was not actually a chemist, but a geologist. Beguyer de Chancourtois proposed a three-dimensional representation of the list of known elements wrapped around a cylinder in a helical graph. Elements that appeared on the same vertical line on the cylinder had similar properties. His helical graph also contained compounds and ions as well as elements so Beguyer de Chantcourtois’ work was disregarded until the work of Mendeleev. In 1862, John Newlands wrote a paper in which he arranged the fifty-six known elements into eleven groups based on similar physical properties. He noted that many of the elements with similarities differed by some multiple of eight in their atomic weights. Newlands found his work unpublished by the Royal Society as there were many criticisms made about his classification of the elements. John Newlands left no places in the table for undiscovered elements which altered the flexibility of the scheme. He didn’t evaluate the best values for the atomic weights, which was a serious omission according to Mendeleev. Some of the elements didn’t obey the scheme, the metals Mn, Ti and Fe aren’t of any resemblance to the non-metals P, Si and s which are placed eight elements before them. He was so convinced of his Law that he tried to force the elements to fit into this system Newlands believed that the system of the octaves would remain valid despite the number of elements that should be discovered. His work was ignored and forgotten until the work of Mendeleev had become famous. Both Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer produced similar results concerning the periodic table even though they worked independently of each other. Meyer constructed an abbreviated version of the periodic table, with only half if the known elements included. Meyer did not separate the elements of the sub-groups and main groups as Mendeleev did, but he did include the transition metals. Meyer had already predicted that there were undiscovered elements that would fit in his system, and so he left vacant spaces for them to be added to the table as they were discovered. Meyer stated the Law of periodicity in 1868 which stated that ‘The properties of elements are largely periodic functions of their atomic weight, Identical or similar properties recur if the atomic weight is increased by a definite amount which is at first 16, then about 46, and finally 88 to 92 units’ Although Meyer’s table wasn’t used due to lack of certainty and flexibility, his colleague Seubert, from the University of Tubingen, republished his first papers in 1895, the year of Meyer’s death, so that students would be reminded of Meyers importance in the development of the periodic system. Dmitri Mendeleev published his first periodic table in 1869. He arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic weight. Mendeleev created cards, with each elements symbol, atomic weight and its physical and chemical properties written on the cards. When these cards were arranged in order of increasing atomic weight then a table of the elements was formed which gave rise to the periodic table of the elements. There were gaps present in the table but Mendeleev didn’t see this as a problem. Instead he believed correctly that the gaps insinuated that elements were yet to be discovered . From these gaps, he was able to predict accurately the physical and chemical properties of the undiscovered elements which he called eka-alumium, eka-boron and eka-silicon. The prefix eka- means similar to. He predicted that ten undiscovered elements existed and seven of these ten were discovered. Some say that his work and research was so brilliant because he wasn’t aware of the previous work done by Beguyer de Chancourtois, Dobereiner and Newlands. He didn’t accept the values for atomic weight without questioning the values. If the element did not fit into the scheme, he simply changed the weight and re-positioned the element in a group where its chemical and physical properties were more suited. He also made some of the periods longer to accommodate what we now know today as the transition metals. Mendeleev’s table is arranged in rows and columns. The elements that we see today in a horizontal period were shown on his table in vertical columns and vertical groups were shown in horizontal rows. Below is an example of the periodic table of Dmitri Mendeleev. Lord Rayleigh discovered a new inert, gaseous element in 1895 called argon. Although he knew of argon’s existence since 1983, it took him over a year to actually isolate the gas. Along with his colleague, William Ramsey, they noticed that this element didn’t fit into any of the known periodic groups. Ramsey made a suggestion that a new group should be formed and placed between chlorine and potassium in the periodic table. It was grouped with helium and a new family of elements was formed. Ramsey also correctly predicted the properties and identification of neon. These inert, gaseous elements were labelled as the ‘zero’ group because of the zero valency of the elements. They were also called the inert gases for many years because they almost completely lacked in any chemical reactivity. It was only when Neil Bartlett in 1962 successfully made a compound which included the element xenon, that the group became known as the noble gases. It was found that xenon bound chemically to oxygen and fluorine and so it showed that there is indeed, limited reactivity in this group of elements. Between the ears of 1911 and 1914, Henry Moseley established the atomic numbers of the elements in the periodic table. This atomic number refers to the number of electrons in a neutral atom. He discovered the atomic number by using an experimental procedure which involved each element producing X-rays. He noticed that as the atomic weight increased, so did the energy of the X-rays. He didn’t understand this until he assigned numbers to the element s. This was a breakthrough in the development of the periodic table and gave rise to a periodic law. This law states that ‘The properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic number’. This Law was better than that of Mendeleev. When Moseley arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number instead of increasing atomic mass then the irregularities that existed in Mendeleev’s table were gone. It is because of Moseley’s work that the periodic table that we have today is in existence. The final crucial change to occur in the period table of the elements came about from the work of Glenn Seaborg in 1940. He discovered the transuranium elements 94-102, starting with plutonium. A year later, Seaborg and his team discovered the isotope plutonium-239. He found that this isotope could be used to construct a nuclear bomb due to the isotope being fissionable by bombardment with slow neutrons. The amount of the plutonium-239 was very little so he began working on how to increase the abundance of the isotope. This research led him to join the Manhattan Project to make bombs for the U. S. Army. When the war ended he began focusing on the other trasuranium elements. Seaborg noticed that the heaviest elements were placed in the main body of the periodic table and he made another change to the table once again. He removed these heavy elements and placed displayed them separately from the main body of the table. He named the elements the Actinide series. As well as identifying the transuranium elements, Seaborg and his team brought to light more than 100 isotopes of the elements in the periodic table. Seaborg received the honour of having an element named after him in appreciation of his extensive research into the periodic table. This element is named seaborgium (Sg). A transition metal is one which forms one or more stable ions which have incompletely filled d orbitals. Members of the transition elements and their compounds are good catalysts, probably due to their ability to change oxidation state. In the case of transition metals, they act as good catalysts because they are able to adsorb other substances onto their surface. The 38 elements occur in groups three to twelve, and it is their valence electrons that occur in more than one shell that cause them to have many oxidation states. Most of the transition metals take a coloured form, as do some of their ionic compounds. Because of the electrons in the d subshell, they are separated into different energy levels, causing the elements to absorb the frequencies of white light. Hence they appear to be coloured. The discovery of new elements, largely due to research in radioactivity, has had an appreciable impact on the development of the periodic table. The discovery of radioactivity in 1896 by Henri Becquerel inspired Marie and Pierre Curie to devote themselves to researching this area of chemistry. They succeeded in isolated radium and polonium just two years later. Marie measured the radiation given out by compounds of uranium and noticed that there was a similar radiation emitted by thorium compounds. During this time, she made the unexpected discovery that pitchblende contains a miniscule amount of an unknown radiating element. Pierre realised the importance of his wife’s work and joined in her research. Over the next year they found two new elements and began work on isolating them so their chemical and physical properties could be established. The third radioactive element was found three years after the discovery of radioactivity when actinium was separated from pitchblende by Debierne. The discovery of these three elements and radon were not the only ‘new’ elements found. Approximately 35 more elements were discovered in the early twentieth century, but these were later identified as isotopes of elements that had already been discovered. The identification of these isotopes and elements give rise to the modern periodic table of the elements. Some would say that although the periodic table is informative and a great discovery, the table does have some limits. Questions were raised in connection with the nonexistence of elements heavier than uranium. There were two main questions raised: Was it possible for heavier elements to occur in other parts of the universe? Was the lack of these elements caused by the instability of heavier atomic nuclei? John Newlands was the only scientist associated with the periodic table to consider the possibilities beyond the limits of the atomic weights. He talked about its upper and lower limits and concluded that there was a simple association between the atomic weights and the ordinal numbers. Some scientists continued to leave vacancies ahead of hydrogen for the neutron, electron, alpha-particle or the hydrogen ion, even after it had been known that the order number was indicated by the number of protons in an atom of the element. So today we are left with a period table of the elements that looks like this. There are eighteen groups and seven periods along with the lanthanoids and the actinoids in a separate grouping underneath the main body of the table. The table is laid out in such a way that the electron configuration for each element is valid as you go across a period. The periods get longer in the periods 4 – 7 to accommodate their electron configuration with s, p, d and f sub orbitals. The periodic table that we have today is a valuable resource for means of education. It’s something that many people take for granted, not realising that it was built over centuries by many great scientists. The modern layout is easy to use and comprehend making the understanding of organic chemistry as a whole easier. Although there may be some doubts to the validity of the table, no one can deny the fact that this family tree of the elements is nothing short of a genius way to assist in the teaching and learning of chemistry. How to cite Development of the Periodic Table, Papers

Character Analysis of Roderic Usher free essay sample

Edgar Alan Poe is an American writer, who is best known for his fondness for macabre, dualism of the world, mysterious atmosphere and incomprehensible events. He also likes to put very complicated and complex characters into his stories. As the character of Roderick Usher is also one of them. In his short story â€Å"The fall of house of Usher† Poe introduces us to Roderick Usher, one of the main characters in the story. Roderick along with his twin sister Madeline are the last standing descendants of the Ushers. The family was prestigious and rather a wealthy one, but some of its members suffered from some kind of mental diseases. Description Poe describes Roderick’s physical features, which include lips that are â€Å"somewhat thin and very pallid,† hair that contains â€Å"more than web-like softness,† and a face characterized by a â€Å"finely moulded chin. † The character of his face had been at all times remarkable† Isolation Roderick is totally isolated from the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Character Analysis of Roderic Usher or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page He does not go out, he does not like the light and he cannot stand the smell of the flowers. He buried himself in his creepy house, abandoning himself in grief. Friendship As the story progresses, he faced with an â€Å"acute bodily illness†, called up a childhood friend. The Narrator arrives at the House of Usher in order to visit at his call. While the relationship between him and Roderick is never fully explained, but the narrator remarks himself, â€Å"†¦as his best, and indeed his only personal friend†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The reader does learn that they were boyhood friends. That Usher writes to the Narrator, urging him to give him company in his time of distress, it shows their close relationship. It seems that that he did not give himself over to despair completely. He has a desire for life and he considers his friend as his saviour. He wanted somebody to help him, but the situation changed dramatically later. Relation with the narrator Another oddity to consider here is Roderick’s relationship with the narrator. He doesn’t know this guy that well – they were friends in childhood but haven’t seen each other in years. Roderick reaches out to him for help because he doesn’t have any companions. Roderick knows that he’s going to die (or at least, he’s convinced himself of as much) – so why ask for help? Does he really think the narrator can do anything to help him? Not really, no. It seems more plausible that he invited the narrator as an audience – to watch the horrors that were going down between him and his sister. Relation with his sister If we talk about this brother-sister connection. What exactly is going on there? Roderick claims that he and his twin share a special connection, one that others would scarcely understand. As we discuss in the â€Å"Sex† section, one interpretation is that they are incestuous. Another, less controversial interpretation is that they share a sort of extra-sensory bond. Those who approach â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† as a psychological tale posit that Roderick and Madeline are actually two halves of the same person: male/female, mental/physical, worldly/other-worldly, natural/supernatural. His relationship with his house We can also think about the spooky connection that Roderick shares with his house. He tells the narrator that he thinks it is sentient or conscious, and that the house is largely responsible for his feeling so dark and gloomy. Many of his artistic compositions revolve around his house. We know that Roderick is a recluse to the extreme, so his existence is confined by the walls of his house. It might be that Roderick’s very identity has somehow meshed with his house, much the same way his identity might be shared with his sister Madeline. Madeline dies and so Roderick dies, too. Similarly, Roderick falls dead to the ground, and so does his house. So by describing what the house is like is showing a reflection of Roderick’s mind. As a Romantic Hero Roderick had some features that could describe him as a romantic hero. He was driven by his heart, not knowledge. He was also an artist. He played guitar and loved to paint. There is also one other matter that is worth thinking it over. A romantic hero had always experienced a feeling of a huge, passionate love, but because of Roderick’s isolation we can assume that his sister was the only woman he did love. Maybe it was not only a brotherly love, more like an incestuous passion. But love is there. So, these peculiarities bring him forward as a romantic hero. As a Villain Roderick Usher can be described as a villain because of his actions concerning his sister. Knowing she was cataleptic, which makes the person unconscious whilst the muscles become rigid and remain in any position they were placed, he put her into a tomb without letting any physicians see her because of the â€Å"†¦unusual character of the malady†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . To conclude, in spite of all the evils as shown, or all the romance as presented, Roderick Usher is not just a one-dimensional â€Å"evil† bad-guy. He is as much victim as villain because he has suffered for probably his entire life in the stigma of being an Usher.